On study type: observational official title: evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in patients with and subjects without age-related macular degeneration (amd) resource links provided by nlm: genetics home reference related topics: age-related macular degeneration x-linked juvenile retinoschisis help me understand genetics medlineplus related topics: macular degeneration u. S. Fda resources further study details as provided by national institutes of health clinical center (cc): estimated enrollment: 600 study start date: april 2003 detailed description: age-related macular degeneration (amd) is the leading cause of irreversible severe central visual loss older than 50 in the world. viagra canada online
1 the incidence and progression of all the features of amd are known to increase significantly with age. 2-4 in a recent study, klein et al. Reported that approximately 15. 6% of the us population aged 60 years and older in 2005-2008 had signs of amd. chicago viagra triangle restaurants 5 in a study in iceland, the prevalence of early amd was 12. cheap viagra online
4% for those aged 66 to 74 years and 36% for those aged 85 years and older. 6 currently in the united states, advanced amd affects more than 1. buy cheap viagra
75 million people and the number will increase to 2. viagra uses women 95 million by the year 2020. 7 epidemiological studies of genome wide association study (gwas), candidate gene association, and linkage disequilibrium suggest that amd has a significant genetic component. natural alternatives viagra viagra 7-10 ample evidence supports the hypothesis that variance of genes involved in dna repair,11-13 oxidative stress14, 15 and inflammation16-20 play a role in aging and age-related diseases. cheap viagra
Many studies have documented the association between polymorphisms in complement factors (cf), oxidative stress, apolipoprotein e (apoe), mitochondria and chaperone proteins genes and amd. 21-23 single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) in apoe, apoe or c2/bf may protect amd. On the other hand, snp in cfh, amrs2/htra-1 or cx3cr1 gene may increase amd risk. viagra uses women 24 in this study, we would like to test whether the variations of biologically plausible genes (or the modifying genes) listed above are differentially distributed in amd patients and normal populations. buy viagra in walmart To this end, we choose genes that are believed to play a crucial role in the aging process and will analyze the frequency of snps specifically within the coding frames of biologically plausible genes responsible for aging and age-related diseases. Our aim will be to compare the allelic frequencies of candidate genes listed above in cohorts with amd to the frequency in normal control subjects without amd. viagra uses women With this study we hope to identify genetic risk factors that could have functional implications for understanding and treating amd. eligibility ages eligible for study: 50 years and older genders eligible for study: both accepts healthy volunteers: no criteria inclusion criteria: amd patients (cases): diagnosis of advanced amd defined by geographic atrophy an. viagra for sale discount generic viagra mg
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